What is a Marine Protected Area?

A Marine Protected Area (MPA) is simply a protected marine environment. What does that actually mean and how do people interpret it?

The goal of an Marine Protected Area

The goal of a Marine Protected Area is to let the marine environment recover to a state essentially unaffected by humans. It progresses from the affected stage to the unaffected stage, it’s natural stage.  This state depends on where it is geographically and the natural equilibrium it would attain based on what surrounds it. In ecological terms it reaches it’s climax community.

An unpolluted Marine Protected Area will accumulate species that would naturally occur in that environment. Polar species for a polar environment, temperate for temperate etc.  Those species would, when left alone, essentially fight it out amongst themselves. An ecosystem would develop that is the same as an environment where there are no humans.

The goal of a Marine Protected Area therefore is to allow that to happen. That is to leave it alone. To leave it alone implies no harvesting and no external anthropogenic influences.

Marine Protected Area Underwater camera
The protection allows fish to live long and reproductively successful lives
How to create a Marine Protected Area

Firstly MPAs require a local desire (usually national) to protect the area. Laws sometimes come into effect that impose an obligation to local populations to leave the area alone.

At times, military occupation of an island or archipelago ensures that. The environment is off limits as a result of the entire region being protected for strategic purposes.  e.g. The Chagos islands.

In rare circumstances such as on Bikini atoll in the Marshall islands, nuclear weapon tests meant that the area was off limits for decades due to being  toxic. The depopulated environment recovered despite the initial poisoning.

Once an MPA is announced,  it requires people to be kept out of it. This can be achieved by laws alone. But because people break the law, policing of the area is often required. Severe deterrents to would-be poachers need to be publicized and enforced.

drone pilot palau illegal fishing
Illegal Fishing boats were burnt in 2015 to demonstrate Palau’s intentions to enforce it’s National Marine Sanctuary.

This previous post highlights the development of surveillance in Palau’s National Marine Sanctuary.

The degree of protection attained is governed by numerous factors and that influences the outcome and overall ecology of the area.

What happens if total protection isn’t attained?

Firstly, total protection is rarely attained. Nowhere on earth is completely free from human influence. Even the very deepest marine trenches are showing signs of human pollution.

What is Pristine?

If “Pristine” is completely untouched (0% human influence) a Marine Protected Area is trying to get as close to zero as possible.

Marine Protected Area, aerial view, DJI drone
The Orona atoll in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area, was once inhabited but now deserted.
Natural balance

So basically, if you remove one or a significant portion or number of any species, it will have an effect on the entire ecosystem. The ecosystem shifts to compensate for the imbalance.  Ecologists call this Trophic Cascade. Trophic levels are essentially what separate plant from herbivore, herbivore from predator.

So by reducing the numbers of predators, the prey species numbers will increase. This will have an effect on what they in turn hunt or harvest. Once those species populations change that will then change what they influence. Imagine a line of dominoes that spreads out into a web. One influences another which then influences more again. These changes in populations not only affect populations either side of them of them but they can also affect the very chemistry of the environment. If there are more of less plants in a system, there would be more or less Oxygen or CO2 available.

Altering the physical chemistry of a system also causes ecological cascades. Increase or decrease in temperature is like changing it’s geographical location. Adding chemicals will also change ecosystems. Farmers increase productivity of their fields with fertilizers and similarly, plant growth can increase if certain compounds of Nitrogen or Phosphorous are added. A process called Eutrophication. Too many plants and not enough herbivores to eat them means systems can be overrun by plant life, choking and shading what was there before.

Benefits of MPAs

The lack of human harvesting from an MPA means that fish numbers and overall biomass increases. (There are more living things). Eventually the biomass increases to the point where it spreads out into the surrounding waters. This overflow can then be harvested. Within the MPA the fish live longer, breed more often and attain greater sizes which means their breeding potential is also greater. (Larger fish produce more eggs and milt and therefore more babies.)

Marine Protected Area Palau Fish spawning
When left alone fish populations literally explode in this case Bohar Snapper in Palau
Harvesting from MPAs

In some parts of the world, MPAs have been established but the local population still harvests from them. This is sometimes for indigenous cultural reasons, however in some locations these cultural excuses are abused and the harvesting is too regular to be sustainable. A overexploitation situation occurs. Local groups citing cultural exception harvest instead of allowing the MPA spillover to repopulate the regular fishing grounds.

The future

In a report from Pew Charitable Trusts: By 2018, there are 15,600 Marine Protected Areas globally, some 25 million square kilometers. This equates to only 7% of the planets oceans. The aim is by 2020 to have 10% of the oceans protected but it seems we are falling well short of this goal. What is worse is that of that 7%, less than half are actually no take zones. Many are still open to harvesting either by indigenous groups or by commercial operations. So it seems we still have a long way to go.

Humans build bigger and bigger fishing boats. The demand for seafood increases with the human population. The pressure on the worlds oceans increases.

It is vital to respect the natural capacity of the oceans. This capacity is not only of the economic kind. How many fish swim in it or how many we can catch etc, but also how well it can recover. Recovery is fastest when the ocean is healthy. A healthy ocean has a greater ability to accept losses, not only amongst it’s inhabitants populations but also losses to it’s own intrinsic health.

Humans are affecting the very chemistry of the worlds oceans.

Natural damaging cycles such as El Nino events are becoming more common. Whilst natural environments before could recover from these warming periods because there was a long time between them. Now these events are happening too regularly for the reefs to fully recover. Each time the damage occurs, the environment has only recovered 50% of it’s potential health. The one step forward two steps back scenario.

The healthiest reef or any environment for that matter is one that is in it’s natural state. This is why it’s so important for us to set aside as much of our Planet as possible. A Marine Protected Area or any conservation area needs to left alone. They should all be left alone and there should be more of them. It is these natural wild spaces that will be the saviors of us all as we strip everything else bare.

For more information on conservation themed filming projects, head over to www.lightningstrikeproductions.co.uk

Behind the scenes of Marine Sanctuary Enforcement in Palau

Palau Marine Sanctuary enforcement is not a simple task. The EEZ is over 600,000 km2, roughly the size of France. The effort to enforce Palau’s National Marine Sanctuary is stepping up a notch to meet this demand.

The worlds oceans are overfished to the point of species extinction and ecosystem collapse. It becomes increasingly important to prioritize sanctuaries and no take zones. But there are those that will fish illegally regardless of the laws in place. In response to this the Republic of Palau has continued to increase it’s capacity for Policing it’s National Marine Sanctuary.

My Role

In my capacity as a media producer I can help document this effort to raise awareness.

Now with the latest surveillance operation concluded I thought I would share some photos of the aerial component.

The Mission

We fly with Pacific Mission Aviation in a Beech Queen Air Excalibur. Daily sorties go out and conduct searches over vast tracts of ocean within Palau’s EEZ. The patrol boats are in the area but cannot cover such a huge area in the same time. Having a spotter plane greatly increases the effectiveness of the patrol boat.

The hatch in the tail of the aircraft allows an observer to take high resolution photos of suspected illegal fishing boats. The photos of suspected vessels can be used as evidence in court. Each flight lasts about 6-9 hours and does an expanding square pattern out from a central point determined by visibility and altitude. Alternatively a parallel search pattern is employed  along the edge of the EEZ.

All eyes are pealed as we search
Aerial observation from 2000ft

My job apart from being an observer is to provide documentary evidence of these missions. In an attempt to obtain compelling B-Roll  we employed GoPros attached to key parts of the aircraft.

See some examples of footage from that here

Part of this media production is for promotion. For one particular joint exercise the remit was to include the aircraft in a shot with 3 patrol boats in formation. It was proposed that we have a GoPro attached to the wing looking back at the aircraft. The plane would then fly just in front of the boats in formation.

We trialled it first with just the housings attached and found the mounts were not strong enough when the aircraft flew above 150Knots. The result…we lost both the housings. So we took to bolting the cameras directly to the aircraft. This time around they survived and did so with minimal vibration and rolling shutter issues. We are continuing to develop this system to improve imagery with every sortie.

The above video shows how precisely the pilot maneuvered the plane for the shot. Before take off we set up a WiFi link to an iPad inside the plane so the pilot could see in real time the view from the camera. At one point the plane was close to 70 ft above the water doing over 100mph banking at 45 degrees…..quite a rush.

After the promotional flight, the three ships made way to different parts of the EEZ. Two apprehended illegal fishing boats loaded with illegally caught fish found and boarded.

The operations continue into 2018 with further successes and apprehended illegal fishing boats.